The Akha people - History and Culture​

Table of Contents

The Akha people in Thailand

Origins of the Akha people

The Akha (อาข่า) hill tribe originally come from Yunnan, which still has the highest Akha population. Over several centuries many Akha people have been migrating to the south. In the middle of the 19th century, significant numbers moved into Shan State in Burma. Others made their way into Laos. However, most of the Akha people, who are now in Thailand, came via Burma. They established the first Akha hill tribe village in Thailand in 1903 in the Phaya Phrai area on the Thai-Burmese border.

Donna Bramhall of Haute Culture Fashion Textile Tours made this video for us in the Akha village Baan Apha in 2016:

Where do the Akha people live?

The Akha hill tribe people live in China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. In China, they mostly live in Yunnan province  , and in Myanmar, you will find Akha villages in Shan State. In North Thailand, you will find most of the Akha villages in Chiang Rai province. In Laos, they live in the border areas of China and Thailand. In Vietnam though, they are a tiny minority living in the northwest border area.

As said, Chiang Rai province is home to most Akha villages in Thailand. An area with Akha hill tribe people is Mae Salong (now known as Santikhiri), northwest of Chiang Rai. Many Akha hill tribe villages are near Ban Therd Thai (formerly called  Ban Hin Taek), the former base of notorious Drug Lord Khun Sa. There are some Akha villages in the Viang Pa Pao and Chiang Dao districts, but most Akha people live north of the Mae Kok River.

Akha hill tribe girls, Chiang Mai
Akha hill tribe girls. Courtesy of Old Chiang Mai

Akha hill tribe subgroups

There are three subgroups of the Akha hill tribe in Thailand: Akha Loi Mi, Akha Phami, and Akha U Lo. The Loi Mi are easily recognizable by the distinctive metal plate on the woman’s headdress’s back. The U Lo women wear a conical headdress. From our observation: there seem to be more Akha Loi Mi and U Lo than Akha Phami. The three subgroups speak the same language.

Four Akha women in Chiang Rai Akha hilltribe trekking Akha hill tribe Green Trails Chiang Mai
Meet the Akha people

The Akha language

The Akha hill tribe speak a language in the Lolo/Yi branch of the Tibeto-Burman language group. The Akha have no traditional written language. There are a variety of schemes for writing Akha. These have been developed by missionaries or linguists who use Roman, Thai or Burmese characters. Apparently literacy in Akha is still virtually non-existent. We have listed a number of expressions and words that you can use if you visit an Akha village.

How are you?

Thank you?

What is your name?











Djosa domjela

Gulung guma deh

Notjonuh ayogue











Counting in Akha Language





















An Akha Loimi woman from Ban Apha, Chiang Rai province, tells us how to count from 1 to 10 in Akha language. Now you can practice yourself.

Akha Religion, Culture, and lifestyle

Though many Akha, especially younger people, are Christian, Akha Zang (“The Akha Way”), a total lifestyle prescribed in the Akha people’s oral literature, still runs deep in the consciousness of older generations. The Akha Way combines animism, ancestor worship, and their deep relationship with the land.

For an Akha, the Akha Way is a way of life that extends beyond simple religious practice and infuses every aspect of their existence. The Akha Way emphasizes rituals in everyday life and stresses strong family ties. Every Akha male can recount his genealogy back over fifty generations to the first Akha.

Smiling Akha woman
Akha Loimi woman in Ban Apha

Traditional Akha houses

The Akha hill tribe people generally live in bamboo houses raised on low wooden stilts in hilly areas. These huts are divided by gender. One side is for the women. The other side, occupied by the men, is used as a more public area. You will still find original Akha houses, especially in remote villages in Mae Fah Luang district in Chiang Rai province. They are harder and harder to find, though.

Primitive village Akha hill tribe
Akha Village in 1981. Photo by Don Oppedijk
Akha woman and child and Asian tourist Akha Hill Tribe
Asian Tourist with Akha family, Chiang Dao

Agriculture, opium and the Royal Project

The Akha practised an often destructive form of slash-and-burn agriculture. It resulted in the cutting of old-growth forests, the extinction of native animal species, and caused severe soil erosion. The Thai government made considerable efforts to ban these slash-and-burn practices.

They are expert farmers who focus on mountain rice, corn, and soybeans, planted in seasonal shifts. The Akha are also skilled hunters, though their prey sometimes includes endangered species. In the past the Akha cultivated opium as a cash crop. The Royal project has succeeded in offering substitute cash crops such as coffee to move the Akha away from opium cultivation. The Doi Tung project is a good example of this.

Akha traditional dress and textile tours

These pictures were made for Green Trails by Donna Bramhall from Haute Culture Textile Tours. in 2017 and 2018 we successfully organised several textile tours for Haute Culture Textile Tours to Ban Apha, the Akha village north of Chiang Rai. If you are interested, please contact us.

Important Akha Festivals

The most famous festival of the Akha is the swing festival. This festival takes place at the peak of the rainy season, which is the end of August or September. If you are in North Thailand around that time, it is worth considering a visit.

There are several other tribal festivals in which the Akha participate. In November, a tribal festival usually takes place at Hua Mae Kham, Mae Fah Luang district. In early December last year, I visited a tribal festival in Mae Sai in which Akha Phami, Palaung (Dara-ang), Tai Ya, Tai Lue, and other tribes took part. We will keep you updated.

Two tribal women in nice dress Chiang Mai hill tribes Akha hill tribe
Akha Loimi women in Chiang Dao

Akha Hill Tribe Cooking Demonstration

In March 2019, the British tour operator Hayes and Jarvis contacted us. We organized an Akha cooking demonstration in the village Ban Apha for the magazine Food & Travel at their request. Journalist Philip Sweeney and photographer Gary Latham traveled to the village. Our guide Narong was responsible for making this a great success in cooperation with Armue and his wife. The pictures Gary took are great, though. You can find more on his website.

We organize this cooking demonstration on request, and it is a great thing to do. You can visit Ban Apha on our trip “Meet and Greet the Akha people of Chiang Rai“.

My own experience with the Akha people

I spent my first night in an Akha village in the Viang Pa Pao district in 1989. After that I stayed many nights in an Akha village near Chiang Rai during a four day/three day trek with groups of Baobab Travel from the Netherlands. I was the tourleader of these groups. Below photo was taken in that village.

The Akha villages that feature in our tours are Akha villages in the Chiang Dao district and the village Baan Apha, Chiang Rai province. We organized textile tours to this village and do our Akha Cooking Course in this village.

References for this article

This website contains a lot of exciting information on the Akha. For more information on books and other sources on ethnic minorities of North Thailand, check out this page.

Visits to Akha villages in Green Trails tours

The following Green Trails tours feature visits to Akha villages:

Chiang Mai Trekking Akha Children Akha hill tribe
Chiang Mai Trekking Akha children 1991

Green Trails Tribal Experiences

Meet and greet the Akha people of Chiang Rai

From: 4,300.00 ฿
From: 4,000.00 ฿

Green Trails Tribal Experiences

Stay with the Palong People of Chiang Dao

From: 7,300.00 ฿