Karen hill tribe – History and Culture

Origins of the Karen

It is not clear where the Karen hill tribe originates from.  Tibet and the Gobi desert are considered possible homelands of the Karen. What is clear is that the Karen have been living in Burma for many centuries. In the 18th century Karen started migrating into Thailand.

White Karen in the forest west of Chiang Mai probably in the 1930s
White Karen west of Chiang Mai, 1930s. Courtesy of the Backhouse archives

Where do they live?

Karen live in fifteen provinces in Thailand. These are all along the Burmese-Thai border from Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son down to Tak, Kanchanaburi and further south to the Isthmus of Kra. Green Trails organizes tours to Karen communities in the Mae Wang area and on Doi Inthanon. Karen communities also feature in tours to the Mae Taeng and Chiang Dao areas. There are Karen villages in the Doi Wawee area, south of Chiang Rai.


In Thailand, the Karen hill tribe is divided into four major sub-groups: the Sgaw Karen who call themselves and other related subgroups Pga-gan Yaw. Then there are the Pwo Karen or Plong: the Pa-O or Taungthu who are also known as Black Karen and the Bwe or Kayah or Red Karen. There are two sub-categories of Pwo Karen – in the north, the Pwo Rachaburi, and in the east, the Pwo Kanchanaburi.

Karen couple in the ricefields
Meeting a Karen couple


The Karen languages are members of the Tibeto-Burman group of the Sino-Tibetan language family. They consist of three mutually unintelligible branches: Sgaw, Pwo, and Pa’o. The Karen languages are almost unique among the Tibeto-Burman languages in having a subject–verb–object word order. Other than Karen and Bai, Tibeto-Burman languages feature a subject–object–verb order. This anomaly is likely due to the influence of neighboring Mon and Tai languages.

We limit ourselves here to Sgaw and Pwo Karen languages. Pa’o is barely spoken in Thailand.

Karen Pwo

Hello(where are you going?)        Lessu (as in let)

Goodbye(come back again)         Leelon

Yes                                                Meesur (sur as in certain)

No                                                 Meeber

Thank you                                     Nibonitar (Ni as in knee)

How much                                      Chi dulleh

Good                                              Gwee

Very good                                       Gwee ter ter

Rice                                                Gwee ter ter (ter as in terror)

Village                                             Ring paa

House                                             Dank

Guest room                                     Sow

Food (rice)                                      Obee

Water                                              tea

Tea                                                 Char

Boy                                                Akwe

Girl                                                Amung

bed                                                Meenon

Baby                                              Poesur

Beautiful                                        Gweek

What is your name?                      Ami Nit Alair?

1                                                     Bon

2                                                     Key

3                                                     Saar

4                                                     Lee

5                                                     Yeah

6                                                     Who

7                                                     Noair

8                                                     Kho

9                                                     Quee

10                                                   Lachee

20                                                   Queechee

100                                                 Lapang

Karen Skaw

Hello(where are you going?)           Lessu Le

Goodbye(come back again)            Leelon

Yes                                                  Uhh

No                                                   Dumaba

Thank you                                       Tola Blu

How much                                       Delow

Good                                               Gay

Very good                                        Gay do rah

Rice                                                 May

Village                                             Zee

House                                             Du

Guest room                                     Depan

Food (rice)                                      May

Water                                              Tea

Tea                                                  Normal

Boy                                                  Akwe

Girl                                                  Homung

Bed                                                 Meenon

Baby                                               Poesur

Beautiful                                         Gweek

What is your name?                       Mee Dee Low?

1 De

2 Ke

3 Sur

4 Lui

5 Zer

6 Chu

7 Noay

8 Chor

9 Quee

10 chee

20 queechee

100 Dukuzar


The Karen hill tribe is the largest of the minority groups. Many people of the Karen hill tribe were converted to Christianity by the missionaries, with some tribes still practicing animism. Much of Karen hill tribe life is dictated by the spirits. The most important is the “Lord of Land and Water” who controls the productivity of the land and calls upon the rice spirit to grow. Also important is the matrilineal ancestor guardian spirit (bga). The village priest is the most revered individual. He is the ritual leader and it is he who sets dates for the annual ceremonies. As the Karen have been incorporated into the Thai state increasing numbers have turned to Buddhism. However, some Karen, especially the Sgaw Karen, have been very responsive to the gospel.

Culture and lifestyle

The Karen hill tribe people wear woven v-neck tunics of various natural colours and turbans. Unmarried women wear distinctive long white v-neck tunics. The Karen occupy lowland areas, engaging in agriculture, including rice cultivation. Most Karen live in mountain villages and practice shifting cultivation of the rotating field type (that is, they move their fields, not their villages). They are primarily subsistence rice farmers. Because they live in the lower mountains, they have interacted significantly with the Thai population.

They are also skilled weavers and the most environmentally conscious of the hill tribes – practicing crop rotation, thus preserving the forest. The Karen hill tribe is the only tribe that owns elephants. Their formerly isolated villages now boast electricity, running water and a dirt road. Many marketable crops, such as tomatoes, soya beans, peanuts, beans and peppers, have become almost as important as the basic rice crop.

Karen hill tribe women weaving at the Old Chiang Mai Cultural Center.
Karen hill tribe women weaving at the Old Chiang Mai Cultural Center. Courtesy of Old Chiang Mai.

Important Karen festivals

As many Karen hill tribe people have been converted to Christianity they celebrate Christian festivals such as Christmas and Easter. During Easter the Karen also engage in ‘finding the egg’. More about this tradition here.
Buddhist Karen celebrate the New Year (‘Nee Saw Ko’) in January.


The Karen people in Green Trails tours

You can meet the Karen people in many Green Trails tours: